Spanish tags

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Referencia: Gómez Torrego, Leonardo (2007). Gramática didáctica del español. Madrid: Ediciones SM. Abrev., i.e., GT 53

General considerations: - We will try to represent in the database the language spoken in its most literal manner. That principle will guide many of the entries and tags.

NOT 1 tag: We will avoid using only one tag for idiomatic expressions, noun phrases, etc., when by breaking the expression to its components the meaning stays the same. Example: “no hay manera", we will enter: “haber, manera”, as separate tags.

1 TAG: On the contrary, wherever breaking the expression into different words results in a loss of meaning, we will enter only one tag, exactly as it was uttered by the speaker. Examples: “lo que sea”, as only one tag; consider that entering “ser”, or “ser, lo, que” would not represent the meaning of this expression;

- "lo siento", "disculpa/disculpe", "perdona/perdone", "de nada", "muchas gracias", "¿qué tal?", "¿qué hay?", "mucho gusto", as they mean standardized formulas;

- "dar tiempo", "de la nada", "en serio", "ya era hora", "hace tiempo", etc.

- "cómo no", "encima que", "es más": TAG these and similar expressions as 1 tag in dialogue, at the same time put <slang> in descriptive, and note it in pedagogical uses: use of informal/colloquial expressions such as ...

VULGARISM/HYPERCORRECTION: In general, we will enter only forms that appear in the dictionary. For example if the speaker says: “chalé”, as it is a dialectal pronunciation, we will tag “chalet”. However, barbarisms/vulgarisms, neologisms, and hypercorrection will be tagged. For these items, enter the non-normative form as spoken in the dialogue tags, enter <slang> in the descriptive tags, and notice the presence of the term in the pedagogical uses, as the instructor needs to be aware of its presence in the clip. Examples below: For example, if the speaker says the vulgarism “*cafeses”, instead of the correct form “cafés”; or the hypercorrect form “*bacalado”, instead of the correct “bacalao”, we will enter the ungrammatical item. Another example is "*de gratis" (a crossing between "gratis" and "de balde").

FREQUENCY: For including tags in the descriptive field (such as subjunctive, conditional, etc.), consider an average of 2-3 ocurrences per minute, or a great relevancy for the interaction. The same criteria applies for including tags in the pedagogical uses field.

DIALECTAL PHENOMENA: There are some exceptions, such as dialectal features always included as <dialect> in descriptive, even if there is only 1 ocurrence. When the dialectal phenomena can be identified, i.e. loísmo, voseo, etc., TAG the phenomena in pedagogical uses. (see forthcoming dialectal features list).

SWEAR WORDS, BLASPHEMIES, CURSES and the kind: We will tag these expressions in the vocabulary field as idiomatic, and frequently with 1 tag. Examples: "ser la hostia", "hijo de puta / hijo puta", "salir/salga de los huevos" (depending on the use), "cagarse en", "tocar los cojones", etc. Remember to tag them also in descriptors as it corresponds to their function and/or lexical category. For some expressions such as those containing "hostia", enter the tag: <blasphemy>.

WORDS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES (borrowing, code-switching, mixing, etc.): Whenever a foreign language is used, tag that language in the DESCRIPTORS field. So, if someone uses a word in English, tag <ENGLISH>. The tag <NON-NATIVE> is for the target language spoken by speakers for whom Spanish is a learned language; for example a French person speaking Spanish and clearly showing her/his geographical origin in her/his pronunciation, her/his selection of words, etc.


NO tag: Names of film characters or fictional places, unless they are historical or represent real contemporary famous people. - TAG: Names of famous/historical (contemporary) people, or real places.

Tag ALL common and abstract nouns; exs. "humildad", "coche", "edificio", "vida", etc.

NAMES OF FAMILY MEMBERS: in cases where there is not an "heterónimo", i.e. “padre/madre"; "yerno/nuera", but just a variation of the kind “-o/-a”, we will enter only the masculine singular term; examples: tio, primo, sobrino, nieto, etc.

TAG Suffixed Words: - Any suffixed word as uttered in its masculine singular form, if the word is only feminine enter the fem. For a review of suffixes see GT 16-27.

- Any compound word formed by yuxtaposition will be entered as one tag, i.e., “buque escuela”, “azul celeste” “sin razón” “moto-agua”, etc. Compound words linked by prepositions will be treated as one tag; i.e. “máquina de escribir”, “olla a presión”, “avión a reacción”. These expressions correspond to one dictionary entry; they are non breakable in components due to the different meaning they have separately; see GT 16-19, 26-27.

- Diminutives, augmentatives, expresives (affection), pejoratives, will be entered as uttered but in their masculine singular form (perrito, librazo, sol(e)cito, pajarraco, etc.), unless they are exclusively feminine; i.e. “hormiguita, casita”. See GT 22-23, 25. TAG: noun “porqué”


. By default only tag masculine, but we will TAG the femenines for:

  • Endings: -ESA: alcaldesa; -ISA: sacerdotisa; -INA: gallina, heroína; -TRIZ: actriz
  • Heterónimos (gender based on word oposition, not because of different endings):

caballo – yegua hombre – mujer padre – madre yerno – nuera

  • Those that mark not a sexual difference but size, form, tree-fruit:

- size/form: cesto – cesta jarro – jarra - tree/fruit: manzano – manzana naranjo – naranja

  • Recent femenines referred to titles and professions; until recently common in gender (invariable in their endings, only changing the article):

doctor – doctora filósofo – filósofa juez – jueza ministro – ministra

--> Any femenine required by the femenine gender of the word.

- NUMBER. By default only tag singular, but we will TAG the plural for:

  • Exceptional plurals in final stressed –a, -e, -o that form the plural in –ES.

no – noes & sí – síes a – aes, o – oes (vowel names)

  • Exceptional plurals: álbum – álbumes ay – ayes buey – bueyes convoy – convoyes

currículum – currícula, currículos; los currículum vítae espray – espráis hipérbaton – hipérbatos imam – imames (imán – imanes) jersey – jerséis lord - lores maní > manís > maníes > manises maravedí > maravedís > maravedíes > maravedises

[tag vulgarisms: *cafeses, *cacahueses --> cafés, cacahués]

oxímoron – oxímoros pódium/podio > podios samuray – samuráis tótem – tótemes

  • Pluralia tantum (GT 45), tag it as it appears either in singular or plural; example: tijeras / tijera, pantalones / pantalón, etc.
  • Tag as one item compound words in plural, i.e. “mangas de camisa”
  • Tag in singular words such as “zapato, calcetín, etc.”, that even though are used in pairs, are separate entities, not a single unit with two parts, as “scissors” or “jeans” are.

2. ADJECTIVES. By default only tag masculine singular, but also TAG the cases:

- Expressions with SER or ESTAR + adjetivo [GT 62-63], where there is a different meaning if used with “ser” or with “estar”, i.e. “ser despierto” / “estar despierto”, “ser bueno” / “estar bueno”, etc.

- Expressions with SER that appear in GT 62 (, that ask for specific tenses after them; i.e. “es necesario” tag: “ser necesario”. If the expression has “que”, ex. “es probable que”, tag: “ser probable que”.

Examples: TAG “estoy seguro de que vendrá” > “estar seguro de que”, “venir” “es seguro que lo hagamos” > “ser seguro que”, “hacer”

  	  TAG:	“el coche es seguro” > “coche”, “ser seguro”

“Pedro está seguro en casa” > “estar seguro”, “casa”

- Comparative: más / menos / tan / igual

   - As “más / menos / tan” need to be distinguished from the homographic adverbs, tag always in the descriptive field:<comparative>. When there is more than 2-3 every minute, tag it also in pedagogical uses.  
   - Comparativos sintéticos: mejor, peor, mayor, menor, inferior, superior	
   - Tag separately: “más, mayor” in the special uses of this form, see GT 53.

- Superlativo:

 - Endings in -érrimo (in masculine singular, unless is oblig. feminine): 

(acre) acérrimo (áspero) aspérrimo (célebre) celebérrimo (libre) libérrimo (mísero) misérrimo (pobre) paupérrimo (pulcro) pulquérrimo

 - All endings in -ísimo (in masculine singular, unless is oblig. feminine):

bonísimo calentísimo certísimo fortísimo novísimo recentísimo ternísimo valentísimo

 - Superlativos sintéticos (derive directly from Latin):

ínfimo máximo mínimo óptimo pésimo supremo

 - Tag <más> in descriptive tags as <superlative> when it applies. Consult GT 54-55 for the uses of the "superlativo sintético". 

3. DETERMINERS. By default do not tag them, only TAG those listed:

- Articles: Do not tag any article

- Demonstratives: “Tal”; “Esa” in relevant conversational sequences such as “la mujer esa”.

- Possesives: “Cuyo”

- Indefinites: - Cada (GT 96) - Cierto - Cualquier, cualquiera, cualesquiera - Demás - Mucho - Quienquiera, quienesquiera - Todo

 - When relevant enter: Nadie, Alguien, Algo

- NUMERALS: Numbers are to be tagged as spoken in their entirety as only one tag; put them always in masculine gender. For example, "1994 ovejas" could be tagged as <mil novecientos noventa y cuatro> & <oveja>. Include all cardinals and ordinals numbers, and also: ambos, cuádruple, cuádruplo, decimoprimero, decimosegundo, doble, doceavo, dozavo, onceavo, onzavo, quíntuple, quíntuplo, treceavo, triple.

- Distributives: “Sendos” (GT 96-97)

- Interrogatives and Exclamatives: Only tag those that become interactionally relevant

- Determinative locutions: así de, cantidad de, infinidad de, la mar de, mogollón de, multitud de, un montón de, un porrón de, un sinfín de, una barbaridad de.

- Quasi determinatives (GT 98-99): cercano, diferente, lejano, mismo, propio, próximo, siguiente, sucesivo, suficiente, último.

4. PRONOUNS. By default do NOT tag them in dialogue tags, only if significant/frequent in the clip. TAG those listed below as follows:

- Personal: - Do not tag any personal pronoun, but TAG the pronoun: Vos

- Enter the prominent use of “Usted / Tú” as descriptive tags: <informal/formal>. If the contrast is very relevant, enter it in pedagogical uses. Do not enter dialogue tags for them.

- Uses from Andalusian varieties such as: “Ustedes váis”; or the use from Central Spain or Latin America varieties of leísmo, laísmo, loísmo, will be entered in descriptive tags as <dialect>, and marked in pedagogical uses --> gloss the phrase where it occurs.

- Reflexives & Reciprocal: not tags for them

- Values of SE: Pasiva refleja & Impersonal sentences, one dialogue tag for the pronoun: “Las horas se me pasan volando” > horas, pasar, se, volando

- Do not tag the pronoun for “encantar, gustar, etc.”

- Ponerse (pronominal use GT 117)

- Dativo ético o de interés (GT 118), one dialogue tag for the pronoun. Also tag “dativo ético/de interés” in pedagogical uses: “Se me murió mi padre” > morirse, me, padre

- Relatives: Cuyo, Cual, Quien, Donde

               If there is a fluid use, put in pedagogical uses something like: “good sample for relative pronouns”, and indicate between brackets the pronouns in use.

- Interrogatives: Cuál, Por qué

               If there is a fluid use, put in pedagogical uses something like: “good sample for interrogative pronouns”, and indicate between brackets the pronouns in use.

- Demonstratives; in dialogue tags: “Tal”

- Indefinites; in dialogue tags: Cada; Cierto; Cualquier, cualquiera, cualesquiera; Demás; Mucho; Quienquiera, quienesquiera; Todo.

  - When relevant enter: Nadie, Alguien, Nada, Algo 


For including tags in the descriptive field (such as subjunctive, conditional, etc.), consider an average of 2-3 ocurrences per minute, or a great relevancy for the interaction. The same criteria applies for including tags in the pedagogical uses field.

Do NOT tag compound tenses (except if they are infinitive & gerund compounds, see below). Example: "he comido" > TAG: "comer". However, if the use of, let's say, "presente perfecto compuesto" is prevalent in the clip, tag it in pedagogical uses; i.e.: <good clip to show the contrast between the "pretérito indefinido" and the "presente perfecto compuesto">

TAG the following:

- “Es que” - “Lo que sea”

- Infinitive simple and compound: “haber amado”

          - For compound infinitives if the use of the verb in the participle form that accompanies the "haber" acts as a reflexive verb, tag: "haberse molestado", add the SE to the infinitive to show the reflexivity.

- Gerund simple (incl. reflexives: “durmiéndose”) and compound: “habiendo amado”

          - For compound gerunds if the use of the verb in the participle form that accompanies the "habiendo" acts as a reflexive verb, tag: "habiéndose molestado", add the SE to the gerund to show the reflexivity.

- Participle (enter always masc. sg, except for oblig. feminine cases)

          - Passive sentences: Ser participio 	[in masc. singular, GT 198-199]
          - All adjectival forms
          - In compound tenses, if the verb in the participle form is a pronominal verb, in the dialogue tags enter the infinitive form with the "se". Ex: "se ha molestado" > "molestarse".  

- Imperative:

              Enter the infinitive form in the dialogue tags. 
              Enter in descriptive tags: <imperative>.
              Point it in pedagogical uses. 

- Present & Future:

                       Enter the infinitive form in the dialogue tags. 
                       Enter in descriptive tags: <imperfective>.
                       Point it in pedagogical uses if there is a contrast between the two. 

- Preterites: Imperfect, Pluscuamperfect, Perfect, Indefinite, Anterior (review GT 168)

      Enter the infinitive form in the dialogue tags. 
      Enter in descriptive tags: <perfective>.
      Point in pedagogical uses the contrast between tenses, and specify the tenses.		

- Conditional: Simple and Compound:

      Enter the infinitive form in the dialogue tags. 
      Enter in descriptive tags: <conditional> (for simple conditional) & <compound conditional>.

- Subjunctive:

     - Present, Imperfect, Perfect preterite, Pluscuamperfect:
         Enter the infinitive form in the dialogue tags. 
         Enter in descriptive tags: <subjunctive> (for simple subjunctive) & <compound subjunctive>.
         Point in pedagogical uses the contrast between tenses, and specify the tenses. 
     - TAG the forms: Imperfect future (“amare”); Perfect future (“hubiere amado”)

- Verbal periphrasis (GT 192-196): Break them in two tags separated by “,” as follows:

       - Deber / Poder / querer / soler  ,  infinitive
       - Acabar de / deber de / dejar de / echarse a / empezar a / estar a punto de / estar para / explotar a / haber de / haber que / ir a / llegar a / ponerse a / romper a / tener que / venir a / volver a  ,  infinitive
       - Andar / continuar / estar / llevar / seguir / venir   ,   gerund
       - Llevar / tener	 ,  participio

- Verbal locutions (GT 197). Enter them as one tag:

        Caer en la cuenta, dar a conocer, dar a entender, dar de lado, darse cuenta, dejar caer, echar a perder, echar de menos, echar en cara, hacer añicos, llegar a ser, tener en cuenta, vete a saber. 

- Reflexive and pronominal verbs tagged with the pronoun “se”:

        comerse, comprarse, lavarse, pensarse, etc.

- Prepositional verbs (GT 314-316): Enter 1 tag: verb in infinitive with the preposition. Consult:

Among others, consider: acercarse a, acordarse de, aprender a, compadecerse de, conocer a, contar a, enamorarse de, encerrar a, encontrarse con, entregarse a, fijarse en, hablar de/con, jugar a, llenar de, olvidarse de, pensar en, responder a, trabajar de, tratar con/de, tratarse de, volver con, etc.

- There are verbs such as DAR, that form idiomatic expressions such as: dar asco, dar cosa, dar igual, dar pena, darse cuenta. Enter them as 1 TAG.


- TAG all adverbs, including all endings in -mente. For a complete list of adverbs in Spanish consult GT 208-209.

- TAG all adverbial locutions in 1 tag (GT 212-214): a cuenta, a principio(s) de, a todo, a todo esto, a veces, al principio, ante todo, antes de nada, antes (de) que, cerca de, como si nada, con frecuencia, de más, de menos, de todas todas, de veras, de vez en cuando, de(l) principio a(l) fin, del todo, dentro de, desde un/el principio, después (de) que, detrás de, en principio, hasta de, justo a tiempo, luego que, mientras que, nada más, nada menos, ni que, ni siquiera, para nada, puede que, seguro que, siempre que, sobre todo, tal vez, y todo, etc.

- Do NOT tag: Como, cuando, cuánto, lo que, muy, no, qué, sí

- TAG: Hace (i.e., "hace un siglo", "hace cinco años", etc.)


- TAG the following prepositions: ante, bajo, contra, desde, durante, entre, hacia, hasta, mediante, pro, según, so, sobre, tras, vía.

- TAG all prepositional locutions and groups (GT 224): a causa de, a cuenta de, a fin de, a nivel de, a por, acerca de, con el fin de que, con miras a, con relación a, con vistas a, de acuerdo con, de cara a, de por sí, desde que, en base a, en relación con, encima de, entre que, hasta que, junto a, junto con, para con, para que, respecto de.

- TAG dequeísmo (GT 225) in descriptive tag as <dialect>, and in pedagogical uses <dequeísmo>. Do not tag “de que” in dialogue tags.

- If there is a frequent and contrastive use of "por/para", enter a note in pedagogical uses to ease that the instructor uses this clip to show this contrast.

- Idiomatic expressions that contain prepositions such as "ni loco", "ni dios", will be tagged as one single tag: <ni loco> <ni dios>.


- TAG all conjunctions: aunque, conque, luego, menos, porque, etc. For a complete list of conjunctions consult GT 235-237.

- TAG distributive conjunctions with a space in between but as one tag, i.e.: bien bien, o bien o bien, ora ora, ya ya

- TAG all conjunctive locutions in 1 tag (GT 235-243): a fin de que, a menos que, a no ser que, al menos, así pues, así que, así y todo, aun cuando, cada vez que, como para, como que, con tal (de) que, con todo (es(t)o), dado que, de forma que, de manera que, de modo que, en cuanto, es decir, esto es, mientras que, o sea, por consiguiente, por eso (que), por lo menos, por (lo) tanto, por más que, por menos de, por mucho que, pues bien, puesto que, según que, si bien, siempre que, siempre y cuando, sino que, tan pronto como, una vez que, ya que.

- TAG the conjunction “si” in dialogue tags ONLY in conditional sentences (GT 240-241, 360-363)

- Do NOT tag: y, e, o, u, ni, pero, que, pues

9. INTERJECTIONS (see Table)

Consult for a preliminary list of interjections and interjective locutions: GT 248-251

- TAG onomatopoeic particles, i.e. “uff”, “oh”, in descriptive tags as <interjection>. --> If they are very relevant for the interaction, and if the clip has 2-3/minute at least, enter a reference in pedagogical uses. --> Do NOT tag them in dialogue tags in general, only if the most relevant for the action.

- TAG all interjections such as “ahí es nada, anda, dios mío, genial, hijo mío, menos mal, mira, oye, qué horror, qué más da, vale, vamos, vaya”, etc., in descriptive tag as <interjection>.

- TAG always all and each taboo in descriptive tags, besides the dialogue tag.


- <Ya saber> for expressions such as: "ya sabes", "ya saben", etc.

- <Ya ver> for: "ya verás", "ya veremos", etc.

- At the end of a sentence and used as confirmation markers: "¿sabes / sabe?", "¿verdad?", "¿a qué sí / no?"

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